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Annual November Conference 2021

Annual November Conference 2021

As you know, we had high hopes we could meet face-to-face, but sadly it’s not meant to be. However, fear not, the conference is still going ahead and will be a virtual event. There’s still so much to look forward to and we can’t wait for the 29th annual November conference to start.

 

What will be included:

From hot topics in microbiology to transformative technologies via online meetings, presentations, and Q&A sessions, setting up a perfect itinerary tailored, through research with our members, to meet your needs. Pharmig always considers our members, so our conference has them at its heart. There are several options to delegates such as: attending the main Conference on the 17th and 18th plus free attendance to the sponsored technical meetings on the 16th and 19th (if you have booked onto the conference).

Highlights from the agenda include:

  • Annex 1 latest updates, GMP findings and regulatory expectations
  • Microbiological recalls – an overview
  • EN17141 – what to make of the new Biocontamination Control Standard?
  • Virucidal efficacy testing – “pushing the envelope”
  • Megalab experience – testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA: an update
  • What do I need to know to control Burkholderia cepacia?
  • Continuous microbial quality monitoring of pharmaceutical water systems
  • The use of enzymatic indicators in conjunction with biological indicators for validating a sterile fill isolator
  • Transformational technologies: artificial intelligence for quality control in practice

 

How the conference helps microbiology practices

This conference is a chance for individuals in the profession to interact in ways they perhaps wouldn’t usually. It’s about fostering relationships, building new partnerships, and evolving practice. Because the conference is interactive, there are plenty of opportunities in our Q&A sessions to expand on the topics under discussion. This allows our microbiologists to evolve and develop their working practices.

 

Further benefits

This interaction paves the way for ideas on additional training, publications, and action groups. The relationships that are formed and topics that are discussed form the building blocks of how we move both the membership and the industry forward. Pharmig’s focus is to facilitate co-operation and collaboration globally with other bodies that have similar interests. We strongly believe that this interaction with other like-minded societies fosters and encourages friendly interaction, not just between members but with other related industries. It’s this continuous desire to evolve that allows us to identify where our members need new information and ensures we continue to provide the greatest value for money.

 

Some of the testimonials from last year’s event

“Thank you for all the work in preparing the presentations and presenting over the last two days. It has been valuable learning and the feedback is very positive” – HPRA

“Keep up the good work” – Sartorius

“Excellent presentations and organisation – really enjoyed it” – MML

“Very clear, great to see the slides on the screen, it was enjoyable, informative and well planned” – NHS Trust

“This was one of the most engaging virtual events I have attended so far. Loved the variety of topics” – AstraZeneca

We continue to hope that all our members, colleagues, and family stay healthy and unaffected by the virus and recommend that everyone continues to remain familiar with the guidance issued by governments on preventing the spread of the infection.

We look forward to you joining us on 17th and 18th November 2021 for the two half-day meetings via Zoom.

Download the full conference agenda and booking form here.

Why do we have microbiology action groups?

Why do we have microbiology action groups?

Member Action Groups

As part of our drive to achieve excellence in microbiology, some of our members (on a voluntary basis) get involved in more specific areas of interest by forming Action Groups. This allows them to concentrate on a particular niche that is of importance to them and, potentially, industry at large.

 

How does it work?

A member will flag up an area of interest and then Pharmig (via the Committee) will canvas its membership to see if there are other members willing to volunteer and support this topic. The objective of this is to create a forum to initially share ideas and formulate a possible plan.  The decision is then made, if there is enough scope, to produce a technical paper, presentation, survey, publication or webinar etc. that would benefit the whole membership. Goals, objectives and timelines will be set and agreed upon in each active Group. This is a space where microbiologists can interact and intellectually engage with each other to progress or develop an area of practice that they are interested in.

These Groups are constantly evolving and continually accept new members as and when required.

 

Action Groups we have set up include:

  • Disinfectant (active)
  • Non-Sterile (active)
  • Cleanroom
  • Rapid Methods
  • LAL (Endotoxin)

 

Outcomes of Action Groups

The word action suggests that these are not passive groups. There is a goal behind them forming and an expectation that anyone who volunteers to join them is willing to support the group in any way they can. There have been many positive outcomes from Action Groups over the years. From publications, surveys, meetings, through to the development of fact sheets, to further pharmaceutical microbiology best practice. There is always the underlying goal when you are part of a Pharmig microbiology Action Group that has positive aims on moving the discipline forward. This can influence behaviour, develop individuals as microbiologists or flag up parts of current practice that can be developed or enhanced in Industry.

 

Moving forward

We are proud that our Action Groups have (for example)  resulted in publications that benefit our membership such as the Guide to Disinfectants and their use in the Pharmaceutical industry­ which is now on its 3rd revision and will be published very shortly.

The guide has been completely revised and re-written to provide you with a roadmap to regulatory compliance for cleaning & disinfection. The new text will walk you through the steps needed to design, validate, and implement an effective cleaning and disinfection programme. Including:

  • Identifying and assessing risks associated with cleaning and disinfection
  • User requirements for cleaning agents and disinfectants
  • Supplier qualification
  • Disinfectant efficacy testing and validation
  • Controls for routine use – including application methods, in-coming QC testing, and periodic review of the programme

This is just one example of what Action Groups can achieve when we have all our wonderful microbiologist heads together; resources that benefit our members and progress pharmaceutical microbiology.

We are also considering setting up an Action Group on Environmental Monitoring to produce a survey around environmental monitoring programs at different facilities.

And – we are also looking to fire up the Non-Sterile Action Group to review / provide feedback on the recent Microbiological Quality Considerations in Non-sterile Drug Manufacturing: Guidance for Industry

https://www.fda.gov/media/152527/download

If either of these are of interest to you as a Pharmig Member or, you  would like to put forward a new Action Group for the Committee to consider please contact the Pharmig office on Tel: +44 (0) 1920 871 999 or email: info@pharmig.org.uk

The Importance of Apprenticeships

The Importance of Apprenticeships

The Modern Apprenticeship Service combines practical training in work with study, leading to industry recognised qualifications up to degree level. Working as an apprentice gives people the chance to earn a real wage, while being trained in the skills that employers want. Employers also benefit from the arrangement, as depending on the size of the company they can get government support for up to 95% of the cost of training

 

Pharmig launched its annual ‘Microbiology Apprentice of the Year’ award in 2020 in order to recognise the contribution made by apprentices to our industries and to encourage more companies to employ them.  This year the award has gone to Ben Pickard at AstraZeneca.

 

Ben was nominated by his colleagues who felt he demonstrated the following qualities:

  • Professionalism – e.g. competency, accountability, communication, organisational skills
  • Contribution – e.g. role played in team and examples of collaboration
  • Achievement – e.g. outstanding skills and expertise in the role, examples of inspiring colleagues, innovation and creativity
  • Development – e.g. personal development and scientific curiosity

 

Professionalism

Ben asks many questions and has learnt a significant amount of microbiology in 3 years from his peers around him.  He has brought his technology skills to the team building electronic processes to manage samples and new pieces of equipment. During the pandemic, resources were limited due to isolation of staff so Ben offered his services as a validated testing technician to go into the QC team to support testing and release whilst also managing his work in development.

 

Contribution

Ben was the first apprentice to be recruited into the Pharmaceutical Technology and Development (PT&D) Microbiology Team.  He completed a 12-month secondment to the QC Microbiology Product Testing Team where he became trained & validated in all basic microbiology product testing techniques for sterile and non-sterile formulations.  Initially the plan was to use Ben for sample management and to shadow senior scientists but it soon became clear that he had the capability to perform the responsible microbiologist role for several development projects and paediatric formulations in his final year.

 

Achievement

Ben has far exceeded our expectations for our first apprentice.  Some of his achievements are as follows;

  • Led the installation and evaluation of two online water bioburden analysers on a purified water system on site.
  • Led and performed the technology evaluations of 3 automatic agar plate instruments for the Global AstraZeneca Network.
  • Presented at the Global AZ Microbiology Network Meeting.
  • Performed the responsible microbiologist role independently for non-sterile development projects which included radiolabelled IV studies.
  • Volunteered in several STEM events which involved taking science into the primary school setting and presenting to local sixth form colleges on apprenticeships
  • Supported the interview process for the AstraZeneca Apprenticeships.
  • Presented at the PT&D Science Day with posters and talks.
  • Developed an electronic process and SOP for sample management.
  • Leads Deviations as part of a small team for PT&D.
  • Promoted to Associate Scientist in March 2021.
  • Science Industry Partnership Ambassador
  • Representative on the PT&D Postcard Board which is responsible for showcasing good science across the business.

 

Development

Ben started with no experience in Pharmaceutical Microbiology after completing his A Levels.  In 3 years, he has progressed from Lab apprentice, to the PT&D responsible microbiologist and recently secured a permanent role as an associate scientist.  Ben hopes to take the OWBA instrument further and continue to share his data and experience; a true credit to Pharmig and deserving Apprentice of the Year.

 

Nominations for Apprentice of the Year next year will re-open in January 2022. If you already have someone in mind, get in touch with Pharmig who will send you additional information and a nomination form – info@pharmig.org.uk

Pharmigs 30th

Pharmig’s 30th anniversary

For all the true geeks out there, the 19th July is Pharmig’s 30th anniversary. It falls on a Monday so any celebrations may be more mocktail than a true Pharmig concoction but it really is worth acknowledging. When we reflect back on what we have accomplished over the last 3 decades, our 30th anniversary really is a landmark achievement. We are proud of our organisation and its capability to host large international conferences bringing in professional speakers from across the world as well as our commitment to be a centre of excellence and development for microbiologists.

Our journey

Pharmig was originally established by a microbiologist (Poly Hajipieris) who realised at the time there was no group that  specifically dealt with the interests and needs of pharmaceutical microbiologists. An inaugural meeting was held in July 1991 and in an open debate, the attendees unanimously agreed that the existence of an interest group in pharmaceutical microbiology would be very useful and so Pharmig was born.

We have come a long way since those humble beginnings and have kept the needs of microbiologists at our centre. Much like fungi in a petri dish, Pharmig has grown significantly since 1991. Our focus is on continual professional development and to act as a unique network for the exchange of microbiological information through training courses, conferences, publications and its website forum. Here are some of the other incredible opportunities we offer:

  • Organising meetings, training courses, conferences and producing publications that provide topical information and views on microbiologically related topics
  • Advancing the science of microbiology and its practical application
  • Influencing the development of regulations and guidelines surrounding microbiology
  • Acting as a confidential forum for the dissemination of information concerning all aspects of microbiology

Annual conference

We started running the now annual UK Conference a year after we were established in 1991 which means that the 2022 UK conference will be our 30th Annual Conference. This has always been an important event, a chance to come together as a community but given last year’s virtual event plus separation not just from family but we will certainly appreciate the chance to interact with each other. The good news is we don’t need to wait til next year as our 29th annual conference takes place on 17th and 18th November 2021. We are keeping everything crossed that this will go ahead and provide everyone with a space for exciting presentations and networking with our community of microbiologists. If we do not manage to get together face to face this year then we will be looking to celebrate that 30th annual conference in true glorious Pharmig style with a little extra sparkle!!

As humans we celebrate anniversaries because no matter which event is being acknowledged, it is always an opportunity to reflect and celebrate. It allows us to look back on our journey and understand how we arrived where we are now. We are proud of Pharmig’s progress and look forward to many more years to come.

What are the values of professional microbiologists - LBGWhat are the values of professional microbiologists - LBG

What are the values of professional microbiologists

It is essential that every organisation has a clear set of objectives, vision and mission that sit at the core of who they are. This isn’t simply the product or service that an organisation is offering, but the values at the heart of the organisation that explains their motivation. At Pharmig we have been asking ourselves: What motivates us? What gives us energy to keep progressing? What are the central values that we absolutely will not compromise on in our work? We have spent evaluating what we stand for and who we serve. Here are our core aims:

  • Disseminate topical information and views on microbiology related topics through events and publications
  • Advance the science of microbiology and its practical application
  • Influence the development of regulations and guidelines surrounding microbiology
  • Act as a confidential forum for the dissemination of information concerning all aspects of microbiology

 

To fulfil those objectives, we have to have a strong skill set within our organisation and our people to bring the very best for our members. We meet these objectives through the following activities:

 

Communication

Our website is a space that we use to communicate microbiological best practice in industries such pharmaceutical, healthcare and other related industries.It is a hub for technical publications, newsletters, regulatory updates and the online training module and virtual events. There are also  opportunities for our members to interact via our social platforms such as LinkedIn and Facebook. By providing different resources and sources of information for our members, we ensure our communication is varied and meaningful.

 

Global connectivity

Though Pharmig is a UK based organisation, we strongly encourage international membership and interaction. We are proud of our global presence as well as our networking at events which foster strong relationships. These events are streamed virtually and enjoy international guests that enrich our global community.

 

Always evolving

Our focus is to facilitate cooperation and collaboration globally with other bodies that have similar interests. We strongly believe that this interaction with other like-minded societies fosters and encourages friendly cooperation not just between members but that extends to other related industries. It’s this continuous desire to evolve that allows us to identify where all members need new information and ensures we continue to provide value.

 

Not for profit

One of the central tenets of our values is our foundation as a society that operates on a not-for-profit basis. We are able to continue to provide valuable courses, webinars and training through funds raised from membership fees and the sale of technical publications as well as events. When there are surplus funds we make sure these are reinvested in the interest of our membership. Because we are a not for profit organisation, it means that our focus is on our members solely and the service we provide.

 

Influencing key stakeholders

We believe it’s important not just to foster relationships with like-minded bodies, but to ensure we reach out to other stakeholders. such as regulatory agencies, health organisations, and governmental departments. We take steps to cultivate and maintain relationships with these organisations, to be the “voice” of our members and ensure that our collaborative enterprise is fruitful and valuable.

Pharmig’s interactive online training course: Cleaning & Disinfection of Cleanrooms

Making cleanroom personnel training easy, quantifiable & interactive.

Who we are

Pharmig have over 30 years of professional experience gleaned from individuals who work in, have responsibility for, or work alongside microbiologists within pharmaceutical, healthcare, cosmetics and NHS industries. This means we have a wealth of experience across multiple areas. We utilise our unique position and expertise to offer professional development and training courses that meet the needs of microbiologists, and those working alongside them whether that be in person, via live-stream, or online via our interactive training portal.

Who is this training for?

This interactive online training module is suitable for those that are working in GMP cleanrooms such as production operators, cleaners, QA, QC and engineers and can be used as part of hygiene training for anyone working in GMP environments and cleanrooms.

An effective cleaning programme is paramount to achieving the necessary hygiene standards for the manufacture of medicines and medical devices. These protocols are no longer confined to pharmaceutical microbiology and have permeated every sphere of life since the covid pandemic.

Do you have the need for training on cleaning and disinfection in pharmaceutical microbiology?

Online interactive training

Whilst we are slowly getting back to a loosening of restrictions, we still can’t meet in large groups to carry out face-to-face training. That’s where an online interactive training module comes into its own. In an increasingly digital world, this has been a lifeline during lockdown for  organisations that still need to develop and enhance their staff. What do you get if you train with Pharmig Microbiology?

What are the benefits of Pharmig’s interactive online training for your team?

The Pharmig Training Portal gives your team access to superior online training. By watching a series of detailed videos and animations, followed by a multiple-choice assessment, they will learn a variety of essential subjects relating to their role in prevention of contamination in the cleanroom environment. It also convenient. You can pause/start/stop after each chapter so that it can easily fit around an individual’s work schedule.

Plus, you will have  and the trainees which makes this course invaluable. On completion the trainees get a formal certificate. This is not just a nice piece of paper; it is clear evidence that they know how to go forward and carry out best practice in decontamination of cleanrooms. For the course content, see below or watch to see what you can expect:

Cleaning and Disinfection of Cleanrooms Training Chapters:

Chapter 1: Introduction to Contamination in Cleanrooms

  • Importance of controlling contamination in the cleanroom
  • Classification limits for microorganisms & particulates

Chapter 2: Disinfection Selection, Storage & Usage

  • Principles behind disinfection selection
  • Control and handling of cleaning agents & disinfectants
  • Preparation & storage of solutions

Chapter 3: Cleaning Techniques

  • Control of cleaning equipment
  • Cleaning prior to disinfection
  • Sequence of cleaning & disinfection tasks
  • Mopping techniques for large surfaces
  • Wiping techniques for small surfaces
  • Transfer disinfection
  • Disposal of waste solutions

Testimonials

Personally, I feel this method of training is a lot more effective than our current training procedures.

The step-by-step videos provide a more effective way of fully understanding the procedure compared to the written/PowerPoint method of just presenting information.

I felt more engaged and more likely to pick up the relevant information. In addition to that, the fact that the series of questions and the information itself are integrated, makes training a lot easier and accessible. I’ve had numerous occasions during my training experience, where I’ve been unable to easily locate/access the relevant module PowerPoints, resulting in me having to either do tests with incomplete knowledge, or just simply having to wait a few days for someone to locate the information required, this makes completing training tedious and time consuming.

Simply put, I feel this system would hugely benefit our training and make it a lot quicker and less cumbersome to get trained than the method currently implemented.

Insight into how flu vaccines are assessed and prepared – an interview with Dr. Richard Webby, Infectious Disease Department at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital 

By Tim Sandle

There are three types of influenza viruses affect people, called Type A, Type B and Type C, leading to the complication of ‘flu’. The virus is typically spread through the air from coughs or sneezes. While there are good practices that people can adopt to lower the risks of contracting flu, it is recommended by health authorities that people become vaccinated by the ‘flu shot’. Influenza vaccines cause antibodies to develop in the body about two weeks after vaccination. These antibodies provide protection against infection with the viruses that are in the vaccine.

Traditional flu vaccines (called “trivalent” vaccines) are made to protect against three flu viruses; an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus, and an influenza B virus. There are also flu vaccines made to protect against four flu viruses (called “quadrivalent” vaccines). These vaccines protect against the same viruses as the trivalent vaccine and an additional B virus. The vaccine needs to be administered once per year.

 

The idea behind an annual flu shot is based on a prediction of what will be the most common types of influenza viruses in a particular country or region during the flu season. This is based on epidemological information and computer modeling. To cover all of the basis, often a trivalent vaccine is used (one designed to be effective against three flu viruses, such as an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus, and an influenza B virus. Sometimes biologists get this wrong and the flu jab doesn’t cover the main flu viruses prevalent for a given year (1).

 

The second reason for an annual shot is that each strain of the influenza virus mutates, meaning that a shot given for one form of the virus one season will probably no longer be effective the following season. A scientific race of discovery is underway to develop the first ‘universal’ flu shot. The premise is that some people can naturally combat different subtypes of the flu virus. Such people can develop powerful antibodies that target a site on the influenza virus that does not mutate rapidly, meaning they can resist a strain of the virus year after year (2).

 

As things standard, an annual flu shot remains the norm. Designing the vaccine is complicated and this requires international collaboration, requiring a data review and working with other scientists around the world.

 

To discover more about this important health topic, Pharmig’s Tim Sandle spoke with Dr. Richard Webby, Ph.D., member of the Infectious Disease Department at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital and Director, World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Studies on the Ecology of Influenza in Animals and Birds (3). Dr. Webby is involved with assessing the requirements for the vaccine development each year.

Image: An FDA laboratory worker injects an influenza virus into an egg, where it will grow before being harvested—one of the many complex steps involved in creating a traditional flu vaccine. Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

 

Tim Sandle: What do you predict for this coming influenza season?

 

Dr. Richard Webby: Unfortunately, flu seasons are difficult – if not impossible – to predict. The season just passed in the Southern Hemisphere was a mixed bag, with Australia having a particularly bad season, but other countries seeing typical levels of activity. Having said that, while monitoring the Southern Hemisphere season helps us predict which viruses we might see in the Northern Hemisphere, it doesn’t necessarily help us predict virus activity itself.

 

Sandle: Many people confuse the ‘common cold’ with ‘flu’. Please can you summarize the key differences?

 

Dr. Webby: The common cold and influenza are caused by different viruses with influenza having the greatest disease impact. In terms of symptoms, the main differences are that influenza virus infection more typically leads to cough, chills and muscle aches, often with rapid onset.

 

Sandle: What is the process involved in selecting a flu vaccine for a forthcoming season? Do you work with WHO?

 

Dr. Webby: The World Health Organization (WHO) has a network of more than 140 laboratories that collect and characterize influenza viruses over their respective influenza seasons. In February, for the upcoming Northern Hemisphere season, and in September, for the upcoming Southern Hemisphere season, a small number of these laboratories, including representatives from the six WHO influenza Collaborating Centres (CC), meets to analyze the information collected and select the components of the upcoming vaccine.

 

Unfortunately, due to the time necessary to produce and distribute the vaccine, these decisions are made some six months before the vaccine is to be used. So in essence, the decision is a prediction, but a prediction based on substantial data of which influenza viruses are most likely to circulate in the coming season. I am Director of the WHO CC at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis.

 

Sandle: Does this process differ year-by-year?

 

Dr. Webby: While the data being analyzed changes constantly and newer technologies are introduced to help analyze the data and improve predictions, the basic process does not change year to year.

 

Sandle: How easy is it to work with pharmaceutical companies for the vaccine development process?

 

Dr. Webby: The influenza vaccine is unique as it essentially needs to be changed regularly and produced to a very strict timeline. As such, and as suggested by your question, ensuring that this works requires collaboration between many sectors, including manufacturers.

The selection of vaccine components itself is conducted independently of the vaccine manufacturers. Subsequent to the selection, however, WHO coordinates the transfer of reagents and information to and from manufacturers to ensure vaccine is available in a timely manner.

 

Image: Colorized transmission electron micrograph of Avian influenza A H5N1 viruses (Source: U.S. CDC)

 

Sandle: Where is the epidemiological data drawn from?

 

Dr. Webby: The data used for selection is drawn from the WHOs Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System which includes the 140-odd national influenza centres across the globe, six WHO CCs, and Essential Regulatory Laboratories (such as U.S. FDA).

 

Sandle: Do you use computer modelling to assess the data? If so, which types of platforms are used?

 

Dr. Webby: An array of computer modelling, and data-visualization programs are utilized for analysis of sequence and antigenic information. More recently, predictive modelling approaches are being explored to help guide the process of vaccine selection.

 

Sandle: Are vaccines typically for more than one type of flu virus?

 

Dr. Webby: There are two major categories of influenza vaccine, a trivalent formulation, which contains antigens from two influenza A viruses (H3N2 and H1N1) and one influenza B virus. More recently a quadrivalent formulation has been introduced which contains the three antigens above as well as an additional influenza B antigen.

 

Sandle: How effective would you say a flu vaccine is ahead of someone being infected with a targeted virus?

 

Dr. Webby: There are many factors that go into the effectiveness of a vaccine: the immunity of the individual, his or her age, and how well the influenza vaccine matches up with the circulating viruses. Unfortunately, in some age groups, such as the elderly, and in years where there is a vaccine-to-virus mismatch, the vaccine’s effectiveness can drop markedly.

There’s a good deal of research going on to understanding exactly why this is the case, and how vaccines can be changed to overcome these deficiencies.

 

Sandle: What are the risks of a different flu virus emerging other than the types produced for this year’s vaccine?

 

Dr. Webby: There are two different scenarios for how that might happen. The most common is when the circulating viruses change between the time the vaccine antigens are selected and the vaccine is actually used.

 

Such occurrences have been documented a small number of times over the past couple of decades. The second scenario occurs when a totally new virus transmits from the animal reservoir and a pandemic starts. This occurs 2-3 times per century.

 

Sandle: Other than vaccines, what else can families do to protect themselves from the flu virus? How effective is hand sanitization?

 

Dr. Webby: The basic principles that we all learned from grandma can help limit the spread of the virus: hand washing, which can prevent transmission from contaminated surfaces, covering your mouth when you cough, and staying at home when you’re not feeling well.

 

Sandle: How is the influenza vaccine likely to develop in the future?

 

Dr. Webby: In the longer term, it’s likely that we will change what parts of the virus we vaccinate against. The part we target now is the most protective, but is also the part most likely to change. It is hoped that by targeting a different part of the virus that doesn’t change as frequently, that we will won’t need to update the vaccine as often.

 

Sandle: Are there any obstacles towards developing a more effective flu vaccine?

 

Dr. Webby: Unfortunately, there are many. We still don’t completely understand what type of immunity works the best against the virus. Many of the more conserved virus structures we’d like to target are the hardest to induce immunity against, so it will take a lot of work to improve this aspect.

 

Sandle: What are your other research interests?

 

Dr. Webby: We study a number of aspects of influenza virology, particularly as it pertains to how influenza viruses change from being animal viruses to being human viruses. We study influenza viruses in a number of high-risk environments around the world and try to understand the key characteristics of pathogenesis and transmission.

 

References

 

  1. Cayley, W. E. (2019): Vaccines for Preventing Influenza in Healthy Children, Healthy Adults, and Older Adults, Am Fam Physician. 100(3):143-146

 

  1. Denis, J. et al (2008) Development of a universal influenza A vaccine based on the M2e peptide fused to the papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) vaccine platform, Vaccine, Vol. 26 (issue 27): 3395-3403

 

  1. Richard Webby, website: https://www.stjude.org/directory/w/richard-webby.html

This is an example of the content that Pharmig Members have access to – if you would like more information on becoming a Pharmig Member please contact the Pharmig office on Tel: +44 (0) 1920 871 999 or email: info@pharmig.org.uk